Demand letter sample
Did you hire this person? Was there a written agreement? If you are in the U.
copyright defaults to the creator, so you have no recourse.
The images belong to the photographer.
If you have a contract with this person you can ask them to fulfill the terms of the contract, but since you use the phrase u201cwithout purchasing his services officiallyu201d Im inclined to believe there is no contract.
,Other countries (Australia for example) have different copyright rules but even then you must officially hire the person before these laws apply.
,If you didnt pay or get a contract, the photographer owes you nothing.
Its his work.
If he uses them in certain contexts without a model release then you may be able to sue for unauthorized use of your likeness, but even then he does not u201coweu201d you high resolution files.
They belong to him as the creator.
,If this is something you actually value, then a good rule of thumb is, you should pay for it, and get a written agreement.
A Chinese typeface can certainly be analyzed and criticized.
Itu2019s just that Chinese designers use different concepts and vocabulary.
In this answer, I will only cover the basics and link to resources like the justfont blog, because the topic is far too complex to attempt a summary here.
Basic Concepts and TerminologyRead: Typeface anatomyFirst, although Western typographic terms were mainly devised for the Latin alphabet, a lot of the fundamental concepts in the Western discipline, such as the use of contrast, are quite universal.
However, Western typography isnu2019t always equipped with the appropriate language to describe the Chinese writing system.
For example, there are variations of line patterns in Chinese which have no equivalent terms in Western typography (though I think itu2019s just a matter of translating them).
,Second, while Chinese typography works with different concepts and terminology, Chinese designers today are also required to have an understanding of Western typography due to globalization and the increasing demand for multilingual typography.
,Finally, itu2019s worth noting that Chinese typography terms havenu2019t been fully standardized.
Additionally, there are regional differences in the vocabulary of Hong Kong, Taiwan, and mainland China.
There are also discussions regarding the proper translation for Western typographic terms.
Categories of TypefacesRead: Chinese Typographic Design - hynuza (follow him on Medium!),There are four main categories of typefaces in Chinese.
,Kai (u6977),Fangsong (u4effu5b8b),Song or Ming (u5b8b/u660e),Sans Serif (u9ed1),A lot has been written about this, so I will not overwhelm you with the fine details.
I will provide the links to other resources.
,If you want to learn about the history and other details, this lecture is probably just what youu2019re looking: u6b23u559cu5802 | u6d3bu5b57u5b57u9ad4u57fau790eu8b1bu5ea7.
Unfortunately, itu2019s only available in Japanese and Chinese (trad/simp).
,Wuying, a transitional Ming typeface03.
Bushou / Pianpang / Bujian- RadicalRead: Radical (Chinese characters)A radical or bushou (u90e8u9996) is for finding a Chinese character in a dictionary, which is why itu2019s also known as a section header.
Although the radical system was created using the graphical components of a Chinese character, they are entirely different concepts.
The radical of u6d69 is u6c34 (u6c35), which means you can locate the page for the character by checking the u6c34 index.
,- PianpangRead: Grapheme, Chinese character classificationPianpang (u504fu65c1) refers to the graphemic components that contribute to the creation of a Chinese character.
The term is most commonly used in the study of Chinese characters, i.
sinology and grammatology.
u6d69 is a phono-semantic compound.
The semantic part is u6c34, which tells us the character has to do with water.
The right component u544a is the phonetic part, which gives us a hint on the pronunciation.
,- Graphical ComponentsRead: u6f22u5b57u90e8u4ef6Bujian (u90e8u4ef6), also known by the name of goujian (u69cbu4ef6) and zigen (u5b57u6839), is probably the term most relevant to the fields of Chinese typography and typeface design.
It is nearly identical to the concept of pianpang, but refers more to the graphical appearance of these parts rather than their graphemic composition.
Some people do use bujian interchangeably with pianpang, in which case you can only tell them apart from the context.
u6d69 u2192 u6c35 (u21922 dian + 1 ti) and u544a (u2192 u725b without the bottom + u53e3),04.
StrokesRead: Stroke (CJKV character), Eight Principles of YongThe Chinese writing system is not an alphabet, and does not have letters like English and French.
Chinese is written with a logosyllabic script that uses thousands upon thousands of characters, all of which are compounded from roughly 50 or so graphical component, which can be further broken apart into strokes, or line patterns.
You can mentally disassemble a Chinese character by the order of these three levels.
,Character,Graphical components,Strokes,A good way to understand the varieties of strokes is by looking at the character u6c38 (yu01d2ng), which contains the 8 most common strokes in the regular script.
Together, they are known as the u201cEight Principles of Yong.
u201d,Although the Eight Principles are a calligraphy concept, the terms for which are shared with typography.
,However, the character u6c38 isnu2019t all-encompassing, and many designers have addressed this issue by showing u201cmade-up characters.
u201d,In Chinese and Japanese calligraphy teaching materials as well as in some typography books, the character u6c38 is often shown as a reference for different stroke characteristics and shapes for Chinese characters.
4 This character represents eight different principles of stroke.
Nevertheless, the eight parts are not distinguished enough to cover the different characteristics of strokes within a character set of a typeface.
On the other hand some of the important details which are distinguishable in a calligraphic representative of the character u6c38 get lost in the transformation to a typeface, even in case of a Songti (Jap.
,In Addition to or even as a replacement of the character u6c38, Japanese typography books often show a u201cmade-up characteru201d created by the significant details of the main stroke shapes.
The appearance of these constructs reminds of a character as they fit into a square and are balanced in its shape.
The complexity of this character and the shape differs slightly in each publication.
Comparable to the nomenclature of the parts of Latin letter, the Chinese terms as well as their English or German interpretations shows inconsistencies.
StructureRead: Chinese character description languageThere are two basic types of structure: a single-component character and a compound.
,Characters that developed from pictograms (u8c61u5f62) and simple ideograms (u6307u4e8b) are usually single-component, but not always.
,Complex ideograms (u6703u610f) and phono-semantic characters (u5f62u8072) are almost certainly compounds.
,From these two basic structures, you can further analyze them into more specific categories.
The structural composition for which are shown below.
,*Single-component characters, which cannot be disassembled any further, fall under the blank box, e.
ZhonggongRead: u8bbeu8ba1u4e2du7684u4e2du5babu6307u4ec0u4e48Zhonggong (u4e2du5bae) is the box in the centre of a nine-square grid (u4e5du5baeu683c) in Chinese calligraphy.
In typography, the concept is used to evaluate a characteru2019s structural composition in relation to the distribution of strokes around the imagined u201ccentre box.
u201d,What Chinese designers usually mean by the u201czhonggong of a character,u201d then, is the graphical impression of a Chinese character in relation to this space.
The closer the graphical elements are to zhonggong, the tighter the character appears.
Conversely, if the strokes are away from zhonggong, the character will look more sparse.
Visit this page for an example: u6c49u5b57u539fu7406u300cu4e2du5babu300d.
,Thereu2019s a few other alternative grids in use, such as the golden ratio grid (u9ec3u91d1u683c), though they are not very common.
Centre of BalanceRead: [but] u4e2du6587u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u7684u7b2cu4e09u8ab2The middle point is not the centre of balance.
It may seem like the middle point (u4e2du5fc3u9ede) is the centre of balance (u91cdu5fc3), as many people would reasonably assume, but the area at which a Chinese character glyph appears most visually balanced is just a little above the point in the middle.
However, there are some views that the centre of balance should not just be higher, but also more to the left.
,Top u2014 the middle pointBottom u2014 the centre of balance08.
Zishenkuang / Zhongxinxian / ZimiankuangRead: Font Concepts, [but] u4e2du6587u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u7684u7b2cu4e00u8ab2Zishenkuang (u5b57u8eabu6846) is the advance width, aka advanceX.
It is sometimes called an u201couter frameu201d (u5916u6846) in Chinese.
,Zhongxinxian (u4e2du5fc3u7dda) is an imaginary vertical/horizontal guide in the middle, kind of similar to a baseline.
,Zimiankuang (u5b57u9762u6846) is the outline bounding box, aka bbox.
It is sometimes called an u201cinner frameu201d (u5167u6846) in Chinese.
,Zimian (u5b57u9762) is the proportion of a Chinese character glyph relative to the bounding box.
ContourRead: u5b57u4f53u8bbeu8ba1u57fau7840uff1au5b57u7531u5fc3u751f, glyph font vs.
u6f22u5b57uff08u4e0auff09Chinese characters are also known by the name u201csquare-shaped charactersu201d (u65b9u584au5b57), but they donu2019t actually share the same shape.
Therefore, they must be adjusted in relation to each other such that they appear uniform in proportion.
Liubai / Futokoro / CounterRead: [u5b57u578b] u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08Most people donu2019t usually pay attention to the spaces in a Chinese character glyph.
When they do, it becomes obvious that the spaces arenu2019t always distributed equally.
,Mariko Takagi has written a great paper that covers this subject and beyond.
Iu2019ll put the link below, so you can check it out later.
,As most of the complex Chinese characters are compounds of more than two elements [.
][bujian], the counter does not only occur within one component, but mostly between the different elements.
In this case it appears to be more suitable to talk about spacing [u7559u767d].
These spaces have to be tight enough to show the connection between the elements within one character.
On the other hand it must be clear and open enough, that even in smaller typeface seizes the compression doesnu2018t get too dense and affect the readability.
In this sense the counters fulfil an important function in the Chinese typeface design.
It may be regarded as a combination of the western typographic understanding of a counter (within one [.
][pianpang]) and the spacing in case of the connection between two or more compounds within one character (similar to the spacing between two letters within one word, set in a Latin typeface).
To compare the understanding and handling of counters and spacing between Latin and Chinese but also Japanese typeface design can be an interesting research topic.
Pangram / BiaozhunziRead: u95dcu65bcu300cu5357u53bbu7d93u4e09u570buff0cu6771u4f86u904eu4e94u6e56u300dThereu2019s pretty much no way you can make a pangram for Chinese, because there are thousands of characters around.
Fortunately, there are characters whose composition can represent the line and structural patterns of other glyphs.
u6771u570bu4e09u529b u4ecau66f8u9df9u916c u9b31u611bu888bu6c38,Version 3.
u6c38u6771u570bu916c u611bu9b31u9748u9df9 u4ecau888bu4e09u529b,Further readingThe Complete Beginneru2019s Guide to Chinese FontsThe long, incredibly tortuous, and fascinating process of creating a Chinese fontTypography between Chinese complex characters and Latin LettersDoshisha University - Academia.
edu (follow Mariko Takagi),u5b57u9ad4u8a2du8a08u7684u57fau790eu5e38u8b58[but] u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u81eau5df1u4f86u2500u4e2du6587u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u7684u7b2cu4e00u8ab2 (part I),[but] u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u81eau5df1u4f86u2500u4e2du6587u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u7684u7b2cu4e8cu8ab2 (part II),[but] u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u81eau5df1u4f86u2500u4e2du6587u5b57u578bu8a2du8a08u7684u7b2cu4e09u8ab2 (part III)